Mount Everest Foundation
Supporting the exploratory

ENIGMA: Examining the physical conditions of a high-elevation Himalayan glacial lake

This team of three researchers succeeded in installing a series of submersible temperature sensors at varying depths in a glacial lake of the Thulagi glacier. Temperature readings gathered during the expedition indicate the possibility of significant differences in the thermal structure of the lake between pre and post-monsoon seasons. The researchers have installed arrays in the lake and intend to return to confirm these findings. They had also planned to test for suspended sediment concentrations at varying depths but issues with their sampling equipment prevented them from gathering a full range of samples. They were also hampered in their plans to map the submerged glacial morphology of the Thulagi glacier after changes in baggage allowance preventing them from transporting their Uncrewed Surface Vehicle to the site. Instead, they elected to use sonar equipment and a kayak to re-map the entire bathymetry of the lake and to install a Raspberry Pi camera to take repeated images of the glacier front in order to quantify its calving rate and determine the style of calving.

May 2023
Alex Scoffield, Duncan Quincey and Nawraj Khanal

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